Tax Brackets, Deductions, Alternative Minimum Tax & EITC

2018 Individual Income Tax Brackets

The Federal income tax has 7 rates: 10%, 12%, 22%, 24%, 32%, 35%, and 37%. The amount of tax you owe depends on your income level and filing status.

These tax rates are new and come from the Tax Jobs and Cuts Act of 2017, which was signed into law by President Trump on December 22, 2017. These tax changes are effective as of January 1, 2018.

While there are still 7 tax brackets, the rates have decreased overall. (These lower tax rates will expire in 2025, unless Congress votes to extend them.) The top rate is reduced from 39.6% to 37%. The bottom rate is still 10%, but it now covers more income.

Remember that moving into a higher tax bracket does not mean that all of your income will be taxed at a higher rate. Instead, only the money that you earn within a particular bracket is subject to that particular tax rate.

Here are the 2018 tax rates and brackets organized by filing status:

Single

Taxable Income Tax Rate
$0 – $9,525 10% of taxable income
$9,526 – $38,700 $952.50 plus 12% of the amount over $9,525
$38,701 – $82,500 $4,453.50 plus 22% of the amount over $38,700
$82,501 – $157,500 $14,089.50 plus 24% of the amount over $82,500
$157,501 – $200,000 $32,089.50 plus 32% of the amount over $157,500
$200,001 – $500,000 $45,689.50 plus 35% of the amount over $200,000
$500,001 or more $150,689.50 plus 37% of the amount over $500,000

Married Filing Jointly or Qualifying Widow(er)

Taxable Income Tax Rate
$0 – $19,050 10% of taxable income
$19,051 – $77,400 $1,905 plus 12% of the amount over $19,050
$77,401 – $165,000 $8,907 plus 22% of the amount over $77,400
$165,001 – $315,000 $28,179 plus 24% of the amount over $165,000
$315,001 – $400,000 $64,179 plus 32% of the amount over $315,000
$400,001 – $600,000 $91,379 plus 35% of the amount over $400,000
$600,001 or more $161,379 plus 37% of the amount over $600,000

Married Filing Separately

Taxable Income Tax Rate
$0 – $9,525 10% of taxable income
$9,526 – $38,700 $952.50 plus 12% of the amount over $9,525
$38,701 – $82,500 $4,453.50 plus 22% of the amount over $38,700
$82,501 – $157,500 $14,089.50 plus 24% of the amount over $82,500
$157,501 – $200,000 $32,089.50 plus 32% of the amount over $157,500
$200,001 – $300,000 $45,689.50 plus 35% of the amount over $200,000
$300,001 or more $80,689.50 plus 37% of the amount over $300,000

Head of Household

Taxable Income Tax Rate
$0 – $13,600 10% of taxable income
$13,601 – $51,800 $1,360 plus 12% of the amount over $13,600
$51,801 – $82,500 $5,944 plus 22% of the amount over $51,800
$82,501 – $157,500 $12,698 plus 24% of the amount over $82,500
$157,501 – $200,000 $30,698 plus 32% of the amount over $157,500
$200,001 – $500,000 $44,298 plus 35% of the amount over $200,000
$500,001 or more $149,298 plus 37% of the amount over $500,000

NOTE: There are no personal exemption amounts for 2018.

2018 Standard Deduction Amounts

There are 2 main types of tax deductions: the standard deduction and itemized deductions. You are allowed to claim one type of deduction on your tax return, but not both.

For instance, if you claim the standard deduction, you cannot itemized deductions – and vice versa (if you itemized deductions, you cannot claim the standard deduction). Your can use whichever type of deduction results in the lowest tax.

The standard deduction is subtracted from your Adjusted Gross Income (AGI), which means it reduces your taxable income.

For tax year 2018, the standard deduction amounts are as follows:

Filing Status Standard Deduction
Single $12,000
Married Filing Jointly or Qualifying Widow(er) $24,000
Married Filing Separately $12,000
Head of Household $18,000

 

Note that there is an additional standard deduction for elderly and blind taxpayers, which is $1,300 for tax year 2018. This amount increases to $1,600 if the taxpayer is also unmarried.

Original can be found at IRS.com

Alternative Minimum Tax

The Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT) was created in the 1960s to prevent high-income taxpayers from avoiding the individual income tax. This parallel tax income system requires high-income taxpayers to calculate their tax bill twice: once under the ordinary income tax system and again under the AMT. The taxpayer then needs to pay the higher of the two. The AMT uses an alternative definition of taxable income called Alternative Minimum Taxable Income (AMTI). To prevent low- and middle-income taxpayers from being subject to the AMT, taxpayers are allowed to exempt a significant amount of their income from AMTI. However, this exemption phases out for high-income taxpayers. The AMT is levied at two rates: 26 percent and 28 percent. The AMT exemption amount for 2018 is $70,300 for singles and $109,400 for married couples filing jointly.

 

 

In 2018, the 28 percent AMT rate applies to excess AMTI of $191,500 for all married taxpayers ($95,750 for unmarried individuals).  Under the TCJA, AMT exemptions phase out at 25 cents per dollar earned once taxpayer AMTI hits a certain threshold. In 2018, the exemption will start phasing out at $500,000 in AMTI for single filers and $1 million for married taxpayers filing jointly.

 

 

 

Earned Income Tax Credit

The maximum Earned Income Tax Credit in 2018 for single and joint filers is $520, if the filer has no children (Table 9). The credit is $3,468 for one child, $5,728 for two children, and $6,444 for three or more children. All of these are relatively small increases from 2017.

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://files.taxfoundation.org/20180207142513/TaxFoundation-FF567-Updated.pdf